General Urban Design of Northeast Historical Cultural Area of Nanhu Scenic Zone in Tangshan
As an important city among the urban agglomeration of Beijing-Tianjing-Hebei province and the deputy center of the whole northeast agglomeration, Tangshan is situated in the junction where the development axis of Beijing-Tangshan-Qinhuangdao and coastal development zone are overlapped. At present, the spatial form of Tangshan showcases the horizontal and vertical double-axes. While this planning zone with 5 square kilometers is located at the end of vertical axis and faces the main entrance of Nanhu Expo Park 2016, where the urban zone and ecological zone integrate with each other. Here was the old area before Tangshan Earthquake. The earthquake in 1976 caused 242,000 people died and 95.5% of the buildings collapsed, and extremely ruined the whole city. After the earthquake, a semi-permanent residential area and a cluster of low-rise factories had been gradually developed. So far, this region is under the condition with low housing quality, poor infrastructure, an aging population, inefficient use of land and a gradual decline in industrial activity. In addition, the geological condition is complicated as well. Considering it’s underground was used to be mining, the area’s development will be impacted, which cannot sustain high intensity. Furthermore, the available land in our site reaches to 2.8 square kilometers, which is greatly significant to the expansion of urban space. Therefore, the challenge of this planning lies in how to reintroduce the population, revitalize the industry and build a dynamic society in such an area with great potential and geological limitation. Here we propose the three strategies:
1.Cultural Priority + Environment Improvement
Some earthquake memorial sites are distributed in our site, including the epicenter and earthquake fault site in No. 10 Middle School and so on .The JingShan Railway-China's first self-built railway goes through here. Moreover, the mine site has been retained on the north of the site. Considering the current multiple cultural clues, we employ local culture as development engine and propose three cultural-experience paths which including ecological and sport route, industrial culture route and earthquake memory route.( See image 1)
Ecological and Sport Route (See image 2)
Connect civic park and Tangshan Expo 2016 Park and develop a 25-meter long cultural experience eco-experience route with urban recreation and sports.
Industrial Culture Route (See image 3)
Along the China’s first self-built railway, develop a leisure zone with the function of low-density commercial recreation, international culture exhibition and communication, creative office and sport training.
Earthquake Memory Route (See image 4)
Plan a large civic park with the theme of anti-seismic experience, earthquake education and sport relax in the area of 200 meters control line from the seismic fault zone. Seek to the growth of value in the surrounding urban area of 170 hectors in virtue of green park of 38 hector.
Consider of the limitation by underground mining area, we propose a growth mode for urban development.
New residential zone with density evolution. Initially, develop green residential zone with a low density to relive the traditional living pattern and attract the middle-class family and promote the service function and increase the industry vitality. In the long term, after the geological condition gets better, construct high-rise building and strengthen the new vitality to increase high-rise tower buildings and strengthen the vitality for New Tangshan.
Innovative and science town with density growt. Inside the blocks the main focus is to create a connected grid which guarantees flexibility to living/office and service function. In the short term, develop a urban image of eco-creative office park with low density- a distinct impression in Tangshan. In the medium term, increase the density by constructing in the inner of garden. In the long term, after the geological condition gets better, construct high-rise building and the reduced green can be compensated by green roof and form a city image of innovative and science with green quality/high intellect.
3.Habitat Introduction + Service Support
Generally, youth group and families greatly guarantees the community’s vitality. Considering the ecological background of Tangshan Expo 2016 and current geological condition, propose a new community type with high green and low density and attract the high-level groups looking for high quality life and satisfy the young groups’ need for living and working.
Plan three service nodes along these three culture routes.
Cultural Display Node–Tangshan Jiaotong University Memorial Park (See image5)
Tangshan Jiaotong University contributes a lot to the education history. It stands for China's higher education history. It is the first university which adopts the western education theory and trained up a lot of great scholars in the profession of civic engineering. The design ideas originate from two concepts- Central Green and Earthquake crack. Design a central green between two remaining building basis (library and classroom). And adopt the form of earthquake crack into the design.
Commercial Node – shopping mall and exhibition zone (See image 6)
Layout multiple functions including recreation, shopping, outdoor exhibition and civic square and create a wonderful place with great vitality. Reserve the existing obsolete railway and transform the train compartment into café, kiosk and so on.
Landscape Memorial Core – Guangyi epicenter memorial square
Here is the epicenter of Tangshan Earthquake and is also the rescue route. Plan a memorial square to recall respecting to the history and family.